The aim of the research project is to investigate the phenomenon of acculturation, involving the adoption of selected elements associated with the Hallstatt Culture on the territory of south-western Poland (particularly Lower Silesia and Greater Poland). The main intention is the correlation of selected features of ceramic objects and contexts in which occurred to the social and cultural changes that have took place in the Early Iron Age (Hallstatt Period). It should be emphasized that this period was a time of many transformations also visible in the material culture. The introduction of the so-called Hallstatt style led to significant changes seen in ceramic manufacture including the organization of a potter's workshop. New forms of veseels, designs elements, technology were different from those locally practiced, which were common in the earlier period that is at the end of the Bronze Age.
|Photographic documentation is created in Archaeological Museum in Poznań||Painted vessel from Nadziejewo cemetery - condition before reconstruction|
The source material it will be the specific categories of pottery, which are associated with so-called Hallstatt Culture. It will be painted, „graphitic” and encrusted pottery which are distinctive type of ceramic ware, indicating the placement of historical phenomena between the end of the Bronze Age and the Hallstatt D phase. Ceramics will be collected in Greater Poland and Lower Silesia, because there are areas on which is located the largest number of sites connected with this culture, first of all cemeteries (e.g. Bruszczewo, Brzezie, Gorszewice, Karzec, Nadziejewo, Rogowo, Słupia Kapitulna, Cieszków, Domasław, Milejowice, Łazy, Wrocław-Księże Wielkie).
|Painted vessel from cemetery at Nadziejewo
- condition after reconstruction
First pottery will be selected for archeometry analyses (will be preceded by formal analysis - morphology and ornamentation). They will be focused on recognizing methods of forming the vessels, recipes of ceramic masses in order to make comparisons between these categories of ceramics within the same sites and from different regions of Poland and Czech Republic. Also an attempt will be made to determine their provienience by the juxtaposition of raw ceramic material (clay) with analysed vessels.
|Painted vessel from cemetery at Rogowo||Sherd of painted bowl from cemetery at Gorszewice|
The selected analytical units will be taken from complex grave, all of which will be collected an organic material (bones, charcoal) for studies aimed to determine the absolute dating. One of the analysis will be the method of radioactive carbon. In the case of fails to obtain radiocarbon dating, the termoluminescence analyses will be make at clay wares. Thanks to this it will be possible to obtain dating to compact object, that is grave complex, containing painted, „graphitic” or encrusted pottery. A series of dates with different sites will determine the temporary range of functioning these categories of ceramics, representing a diagnostic element of chronology established on the basis of formal analyses.
|Encrusted dipper from cemetery at Gorszewice||Encrusted vessel from cemetery at Nadziejewo|
The collected information will be the basis for further investigation, where the ceramic manufacture will be considered with regard to relations between the communities living in Hallstatt Cultural Circle. First of all the scale of reception Hallstatt Culture elements in south-western Poland visible in manufacturing ceramic will be determinated: what was the nature of emerging phenomenon, is it characterized by innovation, how they affect the society of those time?
Current reports of events related to the project and also ceramics, ornamentation not only from the Hallstatt Period can be found on project's site.
The use of radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating will determine the absolute chronology for objects that contain ceramics which are distinctive type of wares in European Bronze and Early Iron Age (painted, „graphitic” and encrusted). This result will provide an important basis for the loctaion in historical time characteristic type of ceramic, whose morphology and technology will be determined in the traditional way and using new methods. This could be te basis to define them as „chronological indicator” and relate to the validity of widely proclaimed opinions of their diagnostic value.
The uniform database will be created, which gathers information arising in the course of the project and those which existing in literature and concern absolute dating and also morphology and technology of ceramics. It will be made available via the Internet for all concerned, so that the results will be put into widespread circulation of science, which will allow for further using.
The information collected in the database will be analyzed and interpreted using social theories. This will contribute to a complementary approach of ceramic manufacture what makes the project interdisciplinary research.